DAFTAR ISI. Vol. 9 No.2 November ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online)
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In order to understand them and what they stand for, it is important to examine their cultural context. Arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi superheroes have continuously demonstrated their relevance, as their stories reflect the American social and cultural history. As Mercier points out, superheroes "have battled real-world figures including Adolf Hitler, tackled controversial topics such as racism, and provoked discussions of cultural shifts within America" p.
Through superheroes, comic books become "a unique medium through which social and political issue have been addressed" Khan M. Sean Carney explains the transformation of the function of the superhero in his journal article "The Function of the Superhero at the Present Time", stating that "from its origins as ideological myth, as popular symptom of closed, ideological consciousness, the superhero has been reinscribed with a hopeful ambivalence which transforms it into a symptom of history" p.
Historically, superheroes have always been a reflection of the society in which they were created. An example of superheroes who fulfilled this function is Superman, who was a symbol of justice during the Great Depression. Captain America has also fulfilled this function when, during World War I, arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi became a symbol of patriotism and a hero who literally punched Adolf Arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi in the face.
Iron Man, the Hulk and the Silver Surfer reflect the political tension of the United States in the s while Spider-Man represents the revolutionary youth culture in the s. Their strong involvement in the American culture and society has substantiated their position in the American national consciousness Mercier,p. Fulfilling her social function as a comic book superhero, the character Kamala Khan or Ms. Marvel represents a cultural and historical phenomenon in the United States, where the signs of awareness arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi acceptance of American Muslim immigrants have begun to grow.
She is also a medium through which Muslims, immigrants, and people of minority groups can be heard. She represents the change in the way Muslims are characterized and understood in the United States. Marvel negates the myth that Islam prevents strong identification with American values and beliefs. The series shows that by adopting a pluralistic identity, Kamala can balance her identity as Muslim and American.
Arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi she is a Pakistani descent, she was born and raised in the United States of America. She grew up surrounded by American cultures and 2 values that influence her as she negotiates her identity as American. Being an American teenager does not prevent Kamala from practicing arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi religion.
Likewise, being a Muslim does not prevent Kamala from participating in the American culture. Marvel offers a different image of Islam countering the prevailing image by which Islam is understood in the United States. In the comic book series, Islam is treated as something that should not estrange or alienate Muslims from the larger society.
This is shown in the portrayals of Muslims that are equally capable of competing at work or in education. The mosque, one of the most important symbols of Islam, is also shown as a flexible institution that is willing and capable to adapt to the American setting as a process of negotiating Islam's position in America. Being Islam is not everything for the Muslim immigrants portrayed in the comic book series. Like any other American in general, Muslims also care about the society.
Kamala's being a superhero represents her involvement in the American society, as she becomes an agent in protecting the society from villains that seek to destroy or conquer it. The exercise of Muslim women's pluralistic identity in the Arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi environment appears in other characters throughout the series, as illustrated by Figure 1 Wilson, Side Entrance,p.
Appearances of veiled women Wilson, Side Entrance,p. The second image depicts one girl wearing the headscarf among the female Lacrosse athletes in Kamala's school. Despite being unnamed, their appearances mark Muslim women's integration in the American culture. The figure conveys the message that wearing the headscarf is not an obstacle. For instance, the Muslim Lacrosse athlete can still participate in the indigenous American sports while wearing a headscarf. The images arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi Figure 1 signify the fact that while participating in the American society and culture, Muslims can still exercise their faith.
Indeed, Muslims will look different, but it does not mean that they are less capable than their non-Muslim counterparts are. Marvel shows that in general, children of Muslim immigrants in the United States show a better ability to integrate into the society. Kamala and other children of Muslim immigrants her age serve as a representation of this generation, as indicated by their active participation in the American popular culture.
One of the illustrations of the integration is the Muslim member of the Lacrosse team at Kamala's school that can be seen in Figure 1. She is depicted wearing a headscarf and a uniform adjusted to the Islamic codes. On the one hand, this illustration shows the school's tolerance of its Muslim students who want to practice their religion. In addition, it also shows that the American teenagers, especially those in the team, accept this unnamed Muslim athlete and have no problems with having her among them.
On the other hand, it also shows a process of ethnic integration in the school and a process of identity negotiation on the Muslim's part, as a Muslim and a student of an American public school, and a member of American society participating in American culture. Another arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi of the children of Muslim immigrants in the United States who have integrated themselves in the American culture is shown in Figure 2 Wilson, Side Entrance,p.
The girls attending weekly youth lecture Wilson, Side Entrance,p. As the Lacrosse athlete follows the Islamic dress code while also playing an indigenous American sport, a girl at the mosque is shown wearing a headscarf, attending an Islamic youth lecture at the mosque while, like many other American teenagers today, playing with her mobile phone.
These teenagers fluently switch and combine the discourses of the American culture with those of their religion and home culture. She eats pakora, drinks chai, wears shalwar kameez, and attends the mosque's lecture while being technology- literate, a superhero fan, a student in an American institution, and a fanfiction writer.
Additionally, Kamala is shown to be a fan of popular movies in the following excerpt: Once when I was ten, just to see if I could actually get down the tree in one piece. Wilson, All Mankind,p. Despite the fact that her parents forbade Kamala to leave the house to watch a movie at such a late hour, she snuck out to see the last installment of the franchise. Kamala also mentions that she was joined by Nakia.
Considering that the movie is one of the most popular young adult movies and one of the highest-grossing films of all time http: Furthermore, Kamala often uses American slang terms.
When she arrives at the Circle Q just to see a masked man carrying a gun and talking to Bruno, her first thought is, "Oh my God. Instead of using the word "rob", Kamala uses the slang "stick up". Subsequently, the number is the first solution that comes to her mind when witnessing arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi armed robbery. The is the most important emergency services in the United States.
This number is globally well-known due to the numerous occasions on which the number is mentioned in American popular culture products. The number itself is important as it provides a sense of security in any case of emergency. However, after remembering that she has super powers, Kamala decides to help Bruno herself as she equals herself with the concept that offers--security for all Americans.
Kamala's ultimate declaration of her integration in the American society can be seen in the following excerpt: This guy thinks he can threaten us where we arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi Marvel has a message for him This is Jersey City. We talk loud, we walk fast, and we don't take any disrespect.
Wilson, Urban Legend,p. Marvel appears publicly in the middle of a arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi and declares her allegiance to Jersey City, warning the villain not to "mess" with the people of Jersey City in their own home. It is important to note that when referring to the Jersey City community, Kamala uses the inclusive pronoun "we" to emphasis her cohesion in the social group that is the people of Jersey City. Another negation of the notion that Islam is un-American is also apparent in the way the Ms.
While Islam is widely considered the religion of terrorism, Ms. Marvel shows that Islam is a religion of peace. While Islam is considered incompatible with core American values, and therefore cannot adapt to the American setting, Ms. Marvel shows that in the negotiation of identity, Islam is able to integrate into the American setting. In the previous section of the discussion, it has been revealed that Nakia's decision to wear a headscarf is an exercise of individualism and subjectivity, rebuking the notion that being Muslim can pose major obstacles to integrating into the American society.
Similarly, Kamala also uses an Islamic teaching in the form of an ayah taken from the Quran to reconstruct the image of Islam as a violent religion and the enemy of the state into a peaceful religion. When seeing Zoe almost drowning, Kamala hesitates about whether or not she should use her newfound powers to save Zoe.
However, after remembering an ayah from the Quran, Kamala resolves to save Zoe, and from then on, uses her power to help people. The following excerpt contains Kamala's motivation to help Zoe based on the Quran: A fire od flood or a bombing.
Because no matter how bad things get Arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi according to my dad Wilson, All Mankind,pp. This ayah is used to counter the bad images and stereotypes against Islamic teachings. In addition, by using this ayah as a motivation for Kamala to save one of her white, all-American schoolmate, the scene demonstrates Kamala's loyalty to the 6 American society, and a sign that she is part of America.
Kamala also reveals that Yusuf always quote this ayah "when he sees something bad on TV", such as "a bombing". This ayah serves as an evidence that Islam is not a religion of violence, as the holy book itself preaches its believers to help others and strongly warns its believers against murder. Yusuf's quoting this ayah hints at his disapproval of acts of terrorism like a bombing. This is also a means used by Yusuf to teach his children of this peaceful and helpful value.
Representing American Muslim immigrants who often have to face prejudice in relation with terrorisms, Yusuf affirms that he is on the same page with every American who condemns terrorism, for Islam teaches that killing another person is un-Islamic. Furthermore, Kamala says that her father used to teach her this ayah while telling her that there will always be someone helping "no matter how bad things get".
Teaching this value to his children, Yusuf was imparting a sense of security that they were not alone, that people are kind and will readily help each other in times of need, regardless of religion. Picking an ayah from the Quran as a reason for her to use her powers, Kamala is making clear that Islam is, at its core, a peaceful religion.
This counteracts the prevailing allegations that Muslim extremists kill in the name of religion. Thus, arti kosakata oposisi biner dalam kbbi an American, Kamala will inevitably interprets the teachings of Islam in the American context. The fact her religion is not the sole thing that defines her makes Kamala relatable for non-Muslim readers.
Islam is just a part of her identity as a child of immigrant who is trying to find her place in the United States. The series diffuses this image by portraying clearly Kamala's relationships with her friends and family, and problems that are universally found in the lives of American teenagers, such as curfew, seeing boys, and detention.
Children of 7 minority groups can also relate with Kamala in the sense of inferiority that Kamala expresses at the beginning of the series.