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Telematics is an interdisciplinary field that encompasses telecommunicationsvehicular technologies, road transportationroad safetyelectrical engineering sensors, instrumentation, wireless communicationsetc. Telematics can involve any of the following:. In contrast, telemetry involves the transmission of measurements from the location of origin to the location of computing and consumption, especially without effecting control on the remote objects. Auto handel mit optionen wiki typically applied in the auto handel mit optionen wiki of flight objects, telemetry has multiple other uses.

The original broad meaning of telematics continues to be used in academic fields but in commerce it now generally means vehicle telematics. Vehicle telematics can help improve the efficiency of an organization. Vehicle tracking is monitoring the location, movements, status and behaviour of a vehicle or fleet of vehicles.

The data is turned into information by management reporting tools in conjunction with auto handel mit optionen wiki visual display on computerised mapping software. Vehicle tracking systems may also use odometry or dead reckoning as an alternative or complementary means of navigation.

Trailer tracking is tracking the movements and position of an articulated vehicle's trailer unitthrough the use of a location unit fitted to the trailer and a method of returning the position data via mobile communication network or geostationary satellite communications, for use through either PC- or web-based software. Cold-store freight trailers that deliver fresh or frozen foods are increasingly incorporating telematics to gather time-series data on the temperature inside the cargo container, both to trigger alarms and record an audit trail for business purposes.

An increasingly sophisticated array of sensors, many incorporating RFID technology, is being used to ensure the cold chain. Freight containers can be tracked by GPS using a similar approach to that used for auto handel mit optionen wiki tracking i. Benefits of this approach include increased security and the possibility to reschedule the container transport movements based on accurate information about its location.

According to Berg Insight the installed base of tracking units in the intermodal shipping container segment reachedat the end of Fleet management is the management of a company's fleet. Fleet management includes the management of ships and or motor vehicles such as cars, vans and trucks. Fleet vehicle Management can include a range of functions, such as vehicle financing, vehicle maintenance, vehicle telematics tracking and diagnosticsdriver managementfuel management, health and safety management and dynamic vehicle scheduling.

These functions can either be dealt with by an in-house Fleet Management department or an outsourced Fleet Management provider.

InAEMP brought together the major construction equipment manufacturers and telematics providers in the heavy equipment industry to discuss the development of auto handel mit optionen wiki industry's first telematics standard.

This group worked from February through September to develop the industry's first standard for the delivery of telematics data. Komatsu, Topconand others are finishing beta testing and have indicated that they will be able to support customers before the end of The AEMP's telematics data standard was developed to allow end users to integrate key telematics data operating hours, location, fuel consumedand odometer reading where applicable into their existing fleet management reporting systems.

As such, the standard was primarily intended to facilitate importation of these data elements into enterprise software systems such as those used by many medium to large construction contractors. Prior to the standard, end users had few options for integrating this data into their reporting systems in a mixed-fleet environment consisting auto handel mit optionen wiki multiple brands of machines and a mix of telematics-equipped machines and legacy machines those without telematics devices where operating data is still reported auto handel mit optionen wiki via pen and paper.

One option available to machine owners was to visit multiple websites to manually retrieve data from each manufacturer's telematics interface and then manually enter it into their fleet management program's database. This option was cumbersome and labor-intensive. A second option was for the end user to develop an API Application Programming Interfaceor program, to integrate the data from each telematics provider into his or her database. This option was quite costly, as each telematics provider had a different procedure for accessing and retrieving the data and the data format varied from provider to provider.

This option automated the process, but because each provider required a auto handel mit optionen wiki, custom API to retrieve and parse the data, it was an expensive option. In addition, another API had to be developed any time another brand of machine or telematics device was added to the fleet.

A third auto handel mit optionen wiki for mixed-fleet integration was to replace the various factory-installed telematics devices with devices from a third party telematics provider. Although this solved the problem of having multiple data auto handel mit optionen wiki requiring unique integration methods, this was by far the most expensive option.

In addition to the expense, many of the third-party devices available for construction equipment are unable to access data directly from the machine's electronic control modules ECMsor computers, and as such are more limited than the device installed by the OEM Cat, Volvo, Deere, Komatsu, etc. In some cases, these devices are limited to location and engine run time, although they are increasingly able to accommodate a number of add-on sensors to provide additional data.

By concentrating on the key data elements that drive the majority of fleet management reports hours, miles, location, fuel consumptionmaking those data elements available in a standardized xml format, and standardizing the means by which the document is retrieved, the standard allows the end user to use one API to retrieve data from any participating telematics provider.

Because one API can retrieve data from any participating telematics provider, as opposed to the unique API for each provider that was required previously, integration development costs are greatly reduced.

This Draft API replaces the current version 1. The Draft API does not currently cover some types of equipment, e. It includes standardized communication protocols for the ability to transfer telematics information in mixed equipment fleets to end user business enterprise systems, enabling the end user to employ their own business software to collect and then analyze asset data from mixed equipment fleets without the need to work across multiple telematics provider applications.

Final language is dependent upon completion of the ISO acceptance process. Satellite navigation in the context of vehicle telematics is the technology of using a GPS and electronic mapping tool to enable the driver of a vehicle to locate a position, plan a route and navigate a journey. Mobile data is the use of wireless data communications using radio waves to send and receive real time computer data to, from and between devices used by field based personnel. These devices can be fitted solely for use while in the vehicle Fixed Data Terminal or for use in and out of the vehicle Mobile Data Terminal.

The common methods for mobile data communication for telematics was based on private auto handel mit optionen wiki RF communication infrastructure. Ever since then, thanks to the cellular providers that offered low GPRS 2. Wireless vehicle safety communications telematics aid in car safety and road safety. It is an electronic sub-system in a car or other vehicle for the purpose of exchanging safety information, about such things as road hazards and the locations and speeds of vehicles, over short range radio links.

This may involve temporary ad hoc wireless local area networks. Wireless units will be auto handel mit optionen wiki in vehicles and probably also in fixed locations such as near traffic signals and emergency call boxes along the road. Sensors in the cars and at the fixed locations, as well as possible connections to wider networks, will provide the information, which will be displayed to the drivers in some way.

The range of the radio links can be extended by forwarding messages along multi-hop paths. Even without fixed units, information about fixed hazards can be maintained by moving auto handel mit optionen wiki by passing it backwards.

It also seems possible for traffic lights, which one can expect to become smarter, to use this information to reduce the chance of collisions. Further in the future, it may connect directly to the adaptive cruise control or other vehicle control aids.

Cars and auto handel mit optionen wiki with the wireless system connected to their brakes may move in convoys, to save fuel and space on the roads. When any column member slows down, all those behind it will automatically slow also. There are also possibilities that need less engineering effort.

A radio beacon auto handel mit optionen wiki be connected to the brake light, for example. Network ideas were scheduled for test in fallin Europe where radio frequency bandwidth has been allocated. The standard is IEEE Similar efforts are underway in Japan and the USA. Telematics technologies are self-orientating open network architecture structures of variable programmable intelligent beacons developed for application in the development of intelligent vehicles, with the intent to accord blend, or mesh warning information with surrounding vehicles in the vicinity of travel, intra-vehicle, and infrastructure.

Auto handel mit optionen wiki warning systems for vehicles telematics are developed particularly for international harmonisation and standardisation of vehicle-to-vehicle, infrastructure-to-vehicle, and vehicle-to-infrastructure real-time Dedicated Short Range Communication DSRC systems.

Telematics most commonly relate to computerised systems that update information at the same rate as they receive data, enabling them to direct or control a process such as an instantaneous autonomous warning notification in a remote machine or group of machines.

By use of telematics as applied to intelligent vehicle technologies, instantaneous direction travel cognizance of a vehicle may be transmitted in real-time to surrounding vehicles traveling in the local area of vehicles equipped with EWSV to receive said warning signals of danger.

Telematics comprise electronic, electromechanical, and electromagnetic devices — usually silicon micromachined components operating in conjunction with computer controlled devices and radio transceivers to provide precision repeatability functions such as in robotics artificial intelligence systems emergency warning validation performance reconstruction.

Intelligent vehicle technologies commonly apply to car safety systems and self-contained autonomous electromechanical sensors generating warnings that can be transmitted within a auto handel mit optionen wiki targeted area of interest, say within auto handel mit optionen wiki of the emergency warning system for vehicles transceiver.

In ground applications, intelligent vehicle technologies are utilized for safety and commercial communications between vehicles or between a vehicle and a sensor along the road.

The demonstration was provided by the NG Connect project, a collaboration of automotive telematic technologies designed to exploit in-car 4G wireless network connectivity. Telematics-enabled computers allow organizers to track members' usage and bill them on a pay-as-you-drive basis.

Some systems show users where to find an idle vehicle. The basic idea of telematics auto auto handel mit optionen wiki is that a driver's behavior is monitored directly while the person drives and this information is transmitted to an insurance company. The insurance company then assesses the risk of that driver having an accident and charges insurance premiums accordingly. A driver who drives less responsibly, will be charged a higher premium than a driver who drives smoothly and with less calculated risk of claim propensity.

Other benefits can be delivered to end users with Telematics2. Telematics auto insurance was independently invented and patented [15] by a major U. The Perez patents cover monitoring the car's engine control computer to determine distance driven, speed, time of day, braking force, etc. Both patents have now since been overturned in courts due to prior work in the commercial insurance sectors.

According to ABI Research global insurance telematics subscriptions could exceed million inup from 5. Theoretical economic research in on the social welfare effects of Progressive's telematics technology business process patents have questioned whether the business process patents are pareto efficient for society.

Preliminary results suggest that it is not, but more work is needed. The smartphone as the in-vehicle device for insurance telematics has been discussed in great detail [22] auto handel mit optionen wiki the instruments are available for the design of smartphone-driven insurance telematics. Funding ended in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. It has been suggested that auto handel mit optionen wiki article be merged with Intelligent vehicle technologies.

Discuss Proposed since May This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Auto insurance risk selection. Archived from the original on Retrieved July 3, Association of Equipment Management Professionals. Archived from the auto handel mit optionen wiki PDF on Publisher Jacek Skalmierski Computer Studio. Car phone Cigarette lighter receptacle Cup auto handel mit optionen wiki Vehicle audio. Retrieved from " https: Automotive electronics Dashboard head units Global Positioning System Information technology management American inventions Vehicle telematics Vehicle technology Wireless locating Telematics.

CS1 German-language sources de Articles to be merged from May All articles to be merged All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from September Articles with unsourced statements from February Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February All Wikipedia articles in need of updating Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers.

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In computing , load balancing improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster , network links, central processing units , or disk drives. Using multiple components with load balancing instead of a single component may increase reliability and availability through redundancy. Load balancing usually involves dedicated software or hardware, such as a multilayer switch or a Domain Name System server process.

Load balancing differs from channel bonding in that load balancing divides traffic between network interfaces on a network socket OSI model layer 4 basis, while channel bonding implies a division of traffic between physical interfaces at a lower level, either per packet OSI model Layer 3 or on a data link OSI model Layer 2 basis with a protocol like shortest path bridging. One of the most commonly used applications of load balancing is to provide a single Internet service from multiple servers , sometimes known as a server farm.

An alternate method of load balancing, which does not require a dedicated software or hardware node, is called round robin DNS. In this technique, multiple IP addresses are associated with a single domain name ; clients are given IP in round robin fashion. IP is assigned to clients for a time quantum. Another more effective technique for load-balancing using DNS is to delegate www. This technique works particularly well where individual servers are spread geographically on the Internet.

However, the zone file for www. This way, when a server is down, its DNS will not respond and the web service does not receive any traffic. Furthermore, the quickest DNS response to the resolver is nearly always the one from the network's closest server, ensuring geo-sensitive load-balancing [ citation needed ]. A short TTL on the A-record helps to ensure traffic is quickly diverted when a server goes down. Consideration must be given the possibility that this technique may cause individual clients to switch between individual servers in mid-session.

Another approach to load balancing is to deliver a list of server IPs to the client, and then to have client randomly select the IP from the list on each connection. It has been claimed that client-side random load balancing tends to provide better load distribution than round-robin DNS; this has been attributed to caching issues with round-robin DNS, that in case of large DNS caching servers, tend to skew the distribution for round-robin DNS, while client-side random selection remains unaffected regardless of DNS caching.

With this approach, the method of delivery of list of IPs to the client can vary, and may be implemented as a DNS list delivered to all the clients without any round-robin , or via hardcoding it to the list.

If a "smart client" is used, detecting that randomly selected server is down and connecting randomly again, it also provides fault tolerance. For Internet services, server-side load balancer is usually a software program that is listening on the port where external clients connect to access services.

The load balancer forwards requests to one of the "backend" servers, which usually replies to the load balancer. This allows the load balancer to reply to the client without the client ever knowing about the internal separation of functions.

It also prevents clients from contacting back-end servers directly, which may have security benefits by hiding the structure of the internal network and preventing attacks on the kernel's network stack or unrelated services running on other ports. Some load balancers provide a mechanism for doing something special in the event that all backend servers are unavailable.

This might include forwarding to a backup load balancer, or displaying a message regarding the outage. It is also important that the load balancer itself does not become a single point of failure. Usually load balancers are implemented in high-availability pairs which may also replicate session persistence data if required by the specific application.

Numerous scheduling algorithms , also called load-balancing methods, are used by load balancers to determine which back-end server to send a request to. An important issue when operating a load-balanced service is how to handle information that must be kept across the multiple requests in a user's session. If this information is stored locally on one backend server, then subsequent requests going to different backend servers would not be able to find it.

This might be cached information that can be recomputed, in which case load-balancing a request to a different backend server just introduces a performance issue. Ideally the cluster of servers behind the load balancer should be session-aware, so that if a client connects to any backend server at any time the user experience is unaffected. This is usually achieved with a shared database or an in-memory session database, for example Memcached.

One basic solution to the session data issue is to send all requests in a user session consistently to the same backend server. This is known as persistence or stickiness. A significant downside to this technique is its lack of automatic failover: The same problem is usually relevant to central database servers; even if web servers are "stateless" and not "sticky", the central database is see below. Assignment to a particular server might be based on a username, client IP address , or be random.

Because of changes of the client's perceived address resulting from DHCP , network address translation , and web proxies this method may be unreliable. Random assignments must be remembered by the load balancer, which creates a burden on storage. If the load balancer is replaced or fails, this information may be lost, and assignments may need to be deleted after a timeout period or during periods of high load to avoid exceeding the space available for the assignment table.

The random assignment method also requires that clients maintain some state, which can be a problem, for example when a web browser has disabled storage of cookies. Sophisticated load balancers use multiple persistence techniques to avoid some of the shortcomings of any one method.

Another solution is to keep the per-session data in a database. Generally this is bad for performance because it increases the load on the database: To prevent a database from becoming a single point of failure , and to improve scalability , the database is often replicated across multiple machines, and load balancing is used to spread the query load across those replicas.

All servers in a web farm store their session data on State Server and any server in the farm can retrieve the data. In the very common case where the client is a web browser, a simple but efficient approach is to store the per-session data in the browser itself. One way to achieve this is to use a browser cookie , suitably time-stamped and encrypted. Another is URL rewriting. Storing session data on the client is generally the preferred solution: However, this method of state-data handling is poorly suited to some complex business logic scenarios, where session state payload is big and recomputing it with every request on a server is not feasible.

URL rewriting has major security issues, because the end-user can easily alter the submitted URL and thus change session streams. Yet another solution to storing persistent data is to associate a name with each block of data, and use a distributed hash table to pseudo-randomly assign that name to one of the available servers, and then store that block of data in the assigned server.

Hardware and software load balancers may have a variety of special features. The fundamental feature of a load balancer is to be able to distribute incoming requests over a number of backend servers in the cluster according to a scheduling algorithm. Most of the following features are vendor specific:. Load balancing can be useful in applications with redundant communications links.

For example, a company may have multiple Internet connections ensuring network access if one of the connections fails. A failover arrangement would mean that one link is designated for normal use, while the second link is used only if the primary link fails. Using load balancing, both links can be in use all the time. A device or program monitors the availability of all links and selects the path for sending packets. The use of multiple links simultaneously increases the available bandwidth.

Many telecommunications companies have multiple routes through their networks or to external networks. They use sophisticated load balancing to shift traffic from one path to another to avoid network congestion on any particular link, and sometimes to minimize the cost of transit across external networks or improve network reliability.

Another way of using load balancing is in network monitoring activities. Load balancers can be used to split huge data flows into several sub-flows and use several network analyzers, each reading a part of the original data. This is very useful for monitoring fast networks like 10GbE or STM64, where complex processing of the data may not be possible at wire speed.

Load balancing is widely used in datacenter networks to distribute traffic across many existing paths between any two servers. In general, load balancing in datacenter networks can be classified as either static or dynamic. Static load balancing distributes traffic by computing a hash of the source and destination addresses and port numbers of traffic flows and using it to determine how flows are assigned to one of the existing paths.

Dynamic load balancing assigns traffic flows to paths by monitoring bandwidth utilization of different paths. Dynamic assignment can also be proactive or reactive. In the former case, the assignment is fixed once made, while in the latter the network logic keeps monitoring available paths and shifts flows across them as network utilization changes with arrival of new flows or completion of existing ones. A comprehensive overview of load balancing in datacenter networks has been made available.

Load balancing is often used to implement failover —the continuation of a service after the failure of one or more of its components. The components are monitored continually e. When a component comes back online, the load balancer begins to route traffic to it again.

This can be much less expensive and more flexible than failover approaches where each single live component is paired with a single backup component that takes over in the event of a failure dual modular redundancy. Some types of RAID systems can also utilize hot spare for a similar effect. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

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This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. This article's section needs additional citations for verification. Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 11 May Raghavendra, "Datacenter Traffic Control: Retrieved from " https: Network management Servers computing Routing Load balancing Balancing technology.

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