Digital Signal

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Signals in the real world tend to be analog. For example the water level in a tank or the speed of car as measured by a tacho-generator. In order to process them with a digital circuit, we need to convert them to digital signals. Conversely, once the digital signals are processed, they must often be converted back to an analog signal.

An example would be processing an audio signal digitally and sending it to a speaker. The speaker requires digital signaling methods binary to text analog signal.

An Analog to Digital Converter ADC takes an analog input signal and converts the input, through a mathematical function, into a digital output signal. While there are many ways of implementing an ADC, there are three conceptual steps that occur. By sampling we turn a continuous-time function which may take on infinitely many values at different times into a discretised function that may take on infinitely many values at different discrete indices.

Sampling generally is done with a Sample-And-Hold circuit simple experiments can be done using a capacitor and switch. To be able to reconstruct the signal we must consider the Sampling Theorem which says that a sampling frequency twice the highest frequency we're expecting is needed.

In a simple way sampling can be defined as the process of taking samples from the continuous time function x t and for the signal to reconstruct we must consider the sampling theorem which states that the sampling frequency must be always greater than or equal than the highest frequency. Quantization is the process of taking a continuous voltage signal and mapping it to a discrete number of voltage levels. The number of voltage levels affects the quantization noise that occurs. Since digital computers are binary in nature, the number of quantization levels is usually a power of 2, i.

The signal may be amplified or attenuated before going into the ADC, so that digital signaling methods binary to text maximum and minimum voltage levels give the best compromise between resolution of the signal levels and minimization of clipping. Encoding is the digital signaling methods binary to text of converting the quantized signals into a digital representation.

This encoding is performed by giving each quantization level a unique label. For instance, if four bits are used, the lowest level may be in binaryand the next highest leveletc.

An Digital to Analog converter DAC takes a digital signal and converts it, through a mathematical function, into an analog signal. Again, the DAC may be implemented in a number of ways, but conceptually it contains two steps. In fact along with the counters we are using digital to analog convertor while converting analog signal to digital signals also. Here we can use counter along with the shift register to store the digital data. From Digital signaling methods binary to text, open books for an open world.

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A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values. Simple digital signals represent information in discrete bands of analog levels. All levels within a band of values represent the same information state.

In most digital circuits , the signal can have two possible values; this is called a binary signal or logic signal. These correspond to the two values "zero" and "one" or "false" and "true" of the Boolean domain , so at any given time a binary signal represents one binary digit bit. Because of this discretization , relatively small changes to the analog signal levels do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.

As a result, digital signals have noise immunity ; electronic noise , provided it is not too great, will not affect digital circuits, whereas noise always degrades the operation of analog signals to some degree. Digital signals having more than two states are occasionally used; circuitry using such signals is called multivalued logic. For example, signals that can assume three possible states are called three-valued logic.

In a digital signal, the physical quantity representing the information may be a variable electric current or voltage, the intensity, phase or polarization of an optical or other electromagnetic field , acoustic pressure, the magnetization of a magnetic storage media, etcetera. Digital signals are used in all digital electronics , notably computing equipment and data transmission. In digital electronics a digital signal is a pulse train a pulse amplitude modulated signal , i.

In digital signal processing , a digital signal is a representation of a physical signal that is a sampled and quantized. A digital signal is an abstraction which is discrete in time and amplitude. The signal's value only exists at regular time intervals, since only the values of the corresponding physical signal at those sampled moments are significant for further digital processing. The digital signal is a sequence of codes drawn from a finite set of values.

In digital communications , a digital signal is a continuous-time physical signal, alternating between a discrete number of waveforms, [3] representing a bit stream message.

The shape of the waveform depends the transmission scheme, which may be either:. In communications, sources of interference are usually present, and noise is frequently a significant problem. The effects of interference are typically minimized by filtering off interfering signals as much as possible and by using data redundancy. The main advantages of digital signals for communications are often considered to be the immunity to noise that it may be possible to provide, and the ability, in many cases such as with audio and video data, to use data compression to greatly decrease the bandwidth that is required on the communication media.

In computer architecture and other digital systems, a waveform that switches between two voltage levels or less commonly, other waveforms representing the two states of a Boolean value 0 and 1, or Low and High, or false and true is referred to as a digital signal or logic signal or binary signal when it is interpreted in terms of only two possible digits. The clock signal is a special digital signal that is used to synchronize many digital circuits.

The image shown can be considered the waveform of a clock signal. Logic changes are triggered either by the rising edge or the falling edge. The given diagram is an example of the practical pulse and therefore we have introduced two new terms that are:. Although in a highly simplified and idealized model of a digital circuit we may wish for these transitions to occur instantaneously, no real world circuit is purely resistive and therefore no circuit can instantly change voltage levels.

This means that during a short, finite transition time the output may not properly reflect the input, and will not correspond to either a logically high or low voltage. The two states of a wire are usually represented by some measurement of an electrical property: Voltage is the most common, but current is used in some logic families. A threshold is designed for each logic family. When below that threshold, the signal is low , when above high. To create a digital signal, an analog signal must be modulated with a control signal to produce it.

As we have already seen, the simplest modulation, a type of unipolar line coding is simply to switch on and off a DC signal, so that high voltages are a '1' and low voltages are '0'. In digital radio schemes one or more carrier waves are amplitude or frequency or phase modulated with a signal to produce a digital signal suitable for transmission. In Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line over telephone wires , ADSL does not primarily use binary logic; the digital signals for individual carriers are modulated with different valued logics, depending on the Shannon capacity of the individual channel.

Often digital signals are "sampled" by a clock signal at regular intervals by passing the signal through an "edge sensitive" flip-flop. When this is done the input is measured at those points in time, and the signal from that time is passed through to the output and the output is then held steady till the next clock. This process is the basis of synchronous logic , and the system is also used in digital signal processing. However, asynchronous logic also exists, which uses no single clock, and generally operates more quickly, and may use less power, but is significantly harder to design.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about digital signals in electronics. For digital data and systems, see Digital data. For digital signals that specifically represent analog waveforms, see Digital signal signal processing. For other uses, see Digital signal disambiguation. For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Signal electrical engineering.

Digital signal signal processing. A logic signal waveform: The Art Of Electronics, 2nd Ed. A digital signal is a special form of discrete-time signal which is discrete in both time and amplitude, obtained by permitting each value sample of a discrete-time signal to acquire a finite set of values quantization , assigning it a numerical symbol according to a code A digital signal is a sequence or list of numbers drawn from a finite set.

Chitode, Communication Systems , Digital signal electronics Boolean algebra Logic synthesis Logic in computer science Computer architecture Digital signal signal processing Digital signal processing Circuit minimization Switching circuit theory. Logic synthesis Register-transfer level Formal equivalence checking Synchronous logic Asynchronous logic Finite-state machine.

Computer hardware Digital audio radio Digital photography Digital telephone Digital video cinema television Electronic literature. Line coding digital baseband transmission. Unipolar encoding Bipolar encoding On-off keying. Carrier-suppressed return-to-zero Alternate-phase return-to-zero. Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication Optical fiber Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line.

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