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SQL Server SQL Server audit lets you create server audits, which can contain server audit specifications for server level events, and database audit specifications for database level events. Audited events can be written to the event logs or to audit files. Audit provides the tools and processes you must have to enable, store, and view audits on various server and database objects.
You can record server audit action groups per-instance, and either database audit action groups or database audit actions per database. The audit event will occur every time that the auditable action is encountered. All editions support database level audits beginning with SQL Server Prior to that, database level auditing was limited to Enterprise, Developer, and Evaluation editions. An audit is the combination of several elements into a single package for a specific group of server actions or database actions.
The components of SQL Server SQL Server audit combine to produce an output that is called an audit, just as a report definition combined with graphics and data elements produces a report. For more information about Extended Events, see Extended Events.
The SQL Server Audit object collects a single instance of server or database-level actions and groups of actions to monitor. When you define an audit, you specify the location for the output of the results. This is the audit destination. The audit is created in a disabled state, and does not automatically audit any actions. After the audit is enabled, the audit destination receives data from the audit.
The Server Audit Specification object belongs to an audit. The server audit specification collects many server-level action groups raised by the Extended Events feature. You can include audit action groups in a server audit specification. Audit action groups are predefined groups of actions, which are atomic events occurring in the Motor de base de datos Database Engine. These actions are sent to the audit, which records them in the target. The database audit specification collects database-level audit actions raised by the Extended Events feature.
You can add either audit action groups or audit events to a database audit specification. Audit action groups are predefined groups of actions. Do not include server-scoped objects, such as the system views, in a user database audit specification.
The results of an audit are sent to a target, which can be a file, the Windows Security event log, or the Windows Application event log. Logs must be reviewed and archived periodically to make sure that the target has sufficient space to write additional records. Any authenticated user can read and write to the Windows Application event log. The Application event log requires lower permissions than the Windows Security event log and is less secure than the Windows Security event log.
De forma predeterminada, el sistema local, el servicio local y el servicio de red forman parte de esta directiva. Este valor se puede configurar utilizando el complemento de directiva de seguridad secpol. This setting can be configured by using the security policy snap-in secpol. Additionally, the Audit object access security policy must be enabled for both Success and Failure. In Windows Vista Windows Vista or Windows Server , you can set the more granular application generated policy from the command line by using the audit policy program AuditPol.
For more information about the Auditpol. Los registros de eventos de Windows son globales para el sistema operativo Windows. The Windows event logs are global to the Windows operating system. For more information about the Windows event logs, see Event Viewer Overview. If you need more precise permissions on the audit, use the binary file target.
When you are saving audit information to a file, to help prevent tampering, you can restrict access to the file location in the following ways: Audit Administrators typically require Read and Write permission. This assumes that the Audit Administrators are Windows accounts for administration of audit files, such as: Audit Readers that are authorized to read audit files must have Read permission.
Even when the Motor de base de datos Database Engine is writing to a file, other Windows users can read the audit file if they have permission.
The Motor de base de datos Database Engine does not take an exclusive lock that prevents read operations. To record any user that is reading the audit file, define an audit on master. If an Audit Administrator copies the file to a different location for archive purposes, and so on , the ACLs on the new location should be reduced to the following permissions: By using a separate instance of the Motor de base de datos Database Engine for reporting, you can help prevent unauthorized users from obtaining access to the audit record.
Para ello, puede utilizar el Cifrado de unidad Bitlocker de Windows o el Sistema de archivos de cifrado de Windows. You can offer additional protection against unauthorized access by encrypting the folder in which the audit file is stored by using Windows BitLocker Drive Encryption or Windows Encrypting File System.
After the audit is created and enabled, the target will receive entries. Puede leer los registros de eventos de Windows mediante la utilidad Visor de eventos en Windows.
You can read the Windows event logs by using the Event Viewer utility in Windows. The general process for creating and using an audit is as follows. Create an audit and define the target. Create either a server audit specification or database audit specification that maps to the audit. Enable the audit specification.
In the case of a failure during audit initiation, the server will not start. In this case, the server can be started by using the —f option at the command line. Because the shutdown will occur on the first encounter of this setting, the event will be written one time. This event is written after the failure message for the audit causing the shutdown. Attaching a database that has an audit specification and specifies a GUID that does not exist on the server will cause an orphaned audit specification.
Because an audit with a matching GUID does not exist on the server instance, no audit events will be recorded. A database that has a database audit specification defined and that uses database mirroring will include the database audit specification.
Para poder trabajar correctamente en la instancia de SQL reflejada, se deben configurar los elementos siguientes: To work correctly on the mirrored SQL instance, the following items must be configured: The mirror server must have an audit with the same GUID to enable the database audit specification to write audit records. For binary file targets, the mirror server service account must have appropriate permissions to the location where the audit trail is being written. For Windows event log targets, the security policy on the computer where the mirror server is located must allow for service account access to the security or application event log.
Los miembros del rol fijo de servidor sysadmin se identifican como el usuario dbo en cada base de datos. Members of the sysadmin fixed server role are identified as the dbo user in each database.
Para auditar las acciones de los administradores, se auditan las acciones del usuario dbo. To audit actions of the administrators, audit the actions of the dbo user. You can use the following DDL statements to create, alter, and drop audit specifications: However, it does no validation when you attach a database.
The audit records are stored in the Windows application log. Provides information about the current state of the audit. Returns information from an audit file created by a server audit.