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The presence of these insects in Indonesia has not been reported yet, but Stewart wilt disease has been found in Java and Sumatera Islands. Insect of genus Chaetocnema which presented in Indonesia is C. This reseach was aimed to conduct the confirmation on status whether C. Test insects in form of C. Treatments were applied by placing imago of C. Five insects were then transferred to each plot of healthy covered plant 1 plot consisted of 5 plants for 72 h. For control, imago of C.
Each of treatments was repeated three times. On the fifteenth after transmission, PCR assays were carried out on leaves of sampled plants and isolates of bacteria. All sampled leaves revealed negative results so that C. Chaetocnema basalis, Vector, Stewart wilt Intisari Chaetocnema pulicaria dan Chaetocnema denticulata merupakan serangga vektor penyakit layu stewart yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Pantoea stewartii pada tanaman jagung.
Kedua serangga ini belum pernah dilaporkan keberadaannya di Indonesia tetapi penyakit layu stewart telah ditemukan di pulau Jawa dan pulau Sumatera. Serangga Genus Chaetocnema yang ada di Indonesia adalah Chaetocnema basalis.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melakukan konfirmasi status apakah C. Serangga uji berupa imago C. Pengujian perlakuan dilakukan dengan menempatkan imago C. Kemudian dipindahkan pada tanaman sehat sejumlah 5 ekor per plot tanaman bersungkup 1 plot terdiri dari 5 tanaman selama 72 jam. Perlakuan kontrol dilakukan dengan menempatkan imago C. ON STATUS sehat selama 72 jam, kemudian dipindahkan pada tanaman sehat yang lain sejumlah 5 ekor per plot tanaman bersungkup 1 plot terdiri dari 5 tanaman selama 72 jam.
Masing-masing perlakuan diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Pada hari ke setelah penularan, dilakukan uji PCR daun tanaman sampel dan isolat bakteri. Hasil pengujian semua sample daun pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran negatif sehingga dipastikan bahwa C. Chaetocnema basalis, Vektor, Layu stewart Introduction Chaetocnema is kind of grass flea beetle which belongs to family of Chrysomellidae and distributes almost throughout the world.
It is pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran of about spesies had been identified Konstantinov et al. In Indonesia, Kalshoven reported the presence of pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran Chaetocnema populations on paddy, maize and grasses which were assumed as Pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran basalis.
Currently, this disease has been widely distributed in all over the world such as: Pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran was considered as new disease on maize and had been reported distributing in Pasaman Barat, West Sumatera Rahma,Bogor Rahma et al.
Stewart wilt disease dispersed through seed and vector. Chaetocnema pulicaria and C. These spesies have not been found yet in Indonesia. Genus Chaetocnema which was found associating with maize in Indonesia is C.
This research was aimed to recognize whether C. Bonanza variety of sweet corn was used as test plant. Preparation of diseased plants was performed by injecting the suspension of P. The collected and 24 h-starved C. Five insects were then transferred to plot of 8-days plant each plot consisted of 5 covered plants for 72 h, here in pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran used as control P0each treatment was repeated three times.
On the fifteenth day after transmission, leaves of each plant were sampled and analysed using two methods, i. DNA extraction was performed using method developed by Goodwin et al. Leaf samples were isolated using NA medium, samples indicating bacterial exudates were then purified on yeast dextrose calcium carbonate YDC3-days pured cultures were then extracted using CTAB method of Pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran et al.
Extracted pellet was checked to find out the presence of DNA by mixing the pellet with loading dye in 1: Afterwards, DNA was amplified according to protocol of Coplin et al. The used protocol were as follows: Steps of denaturation, annealing, and extension were cycled for 25 times.
PCR products were then put into well of 1. Electrophoresis product was then visualized on UV transillluminator. Penulisan harus konsisten Results and Discussions Results of transmission test exhibited that C. This fact could be viewed from results of molecular assay on figure 3, 4 and 5, in which all of samples and analyses methods showed negative results.
Figure 3 was result of transmission test pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran control plants P0indicating negative results of all repetition and test plant having extracted and molecular analysed. Figure 4 was result of transmission test on treated plants P1revealing negative results of of all repetition and test plant having extracted and molecular analysed. Figure 5 was result of transmission test on all treatments and isolated plant samples, leaf samples exudating bacterial colony and then purified and extracted.
Molecular assay expressed negative results on all sampled isolates. Disease transmission through vector was a complicated interaction between insect, plant and pathogen Martini et al. Feeding manner of insect, imunity reaction of insect and plant, and characteristics of pathogen were some considerating factors. Transmission happened pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran saliva containing pathogen which would penetrate via lession occuring for feeding process, so that the pathogen could spread through xylem vessels and cell cavities Orlovskis et al.
However, feeding process of C. The strange objects which entered into insect bodies could be pathogenic or symbiotic Ammar et al. They would establish defense systems when foreign objects penetrated into their bodies Chapman, The same reaction also occurred on plants when extraneous particles got into their tissues, i. Pathogen could be observed in midgut and hindgut until 12 days after acquisition Ammar et al.
Pathogen would be brought by blood circulation and dissolved in saliva. Such condition took place when the pathogen was persistent in vector. Colony establishment on host plant was initiated by producing injectisomere or pili to transfer effector protein to host plant.
T3SS was important factor for pathogenicity of P. Secretion system of second T3SS was the establishment of Pantoea secretion island 2 PSI-2 which was required by pathogen to be persistent in insect bodies. The incompetence of Chaetocnema basalis in transmitting Stewart wilt was much affected by the inability of P. Generally, interaction of pathogen and vector was specific, in this case, C. The presence of other Chaetocnema species in pathosystem of Stewart wilt was not necessarily vector for dispersal of P.
The existence of C. Stewart wilt dispersed through seed and vector, the seed dispersal intensity was less than 0.
Austria, Greece, Poland, Rumania, dan Russia documented the incidence of this disease, however the pathogen could not survive in those regions.
China, Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia had also recorded the prevalence of this disease, but the pathogen could not survive as well Anonim Pathogen survives in insect bodies and host tissue, those factors should be simultaneously for pathogen to be able to survive and establish in certain areas.
Yet found of C. Although the disease prevalence has been reported, pathogen can not survive and establish in Indonesia. So that it is required sustainable monitoring of this disease and its vector. Moreover, the improvement of supervision on pathways at entry points should be performed in order to ensure that Indonesia could be free from Stewart wilt disease.
Academic Press, New York. A, Correa V, Redinbough M. Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart's wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria Coleoptera: Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure, pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran 1pp.
EPPO Bulletin, 8 2pp. The Insect "Structure and Function". Identification of Pantoea stewartii subsp. Plant Disease, 86 3pp. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78 17pp. Amplification of plasmid DNA to detect plant pathogenic mycoplasmalke organisms. Annals of applied biology,pp. A, Baselga A, Grebennikov V. Revision of the Paleartic Chaetocnema Species Coleoptera: Infection of an insect vector with a bacterial plant pathogen increases its propensity for dispersal.
Orlovskis, Z, Canale M. Insect-borne plant pathogenic bacteria: Getting a ride goes beyond physical contact. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 9, pp. The risk of introducing Erwinia stewartii in maize seed. Rahma, H, Sinaga M. S, Surahman M, Giyanto. First report of stewart's wilt pelan binari sekolah perniagaan rangkaian pemasaran maize caused by pantoea stewartii subsp.
Stewartii in bogor district, indonesia.