Europe s Demographic Future

5 stars based on 63 reviews

Die Erfindung betrifft ein Verfahren zum verlustarmen Abbremsen eines elektrisch angetriebenen Fahrzeuges mit zwei je einer Fahrzeugseite zugeordneten, zueinander parallel geschalteten Elektromotoren, die von einer Impulssteuerung gesteuert werden. The invention relates to a method of low-loss braking an electrically driven vehicle with a vehicle side in each case two associated, mutually parallel-connected electric motors, which are controlled by a pulse control.

Bisher werden Fahrzeuge mit Antrieben der genannten Art mittels Gegenstrombremsung abgebremst. So far, vehicles are slowed down with drives of the type mentioned by plugging. The braking operation is thereby controlled by the driver, for example, in the two-pedal control by operation of the pedal counter, wherein the single-pedal control by switching the direction of travel with a manual switch.

Proportional zur Pedalstellung erfolgt dann das Abbremsen. Proportional to pedal position then takes braking. Um ein Bremsmoment zu erzeugen, sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung mittels elektrischer Schaltungen entweder das den Elektromotor erregende Feld umgepolt oder die Stromrichtung durch den Elektromotor umgekehrt.

In order to generate a braking torque, either the electric motor energizing field is reversed, or the current direction is reversed by the electric motor by means of electrical circuits.

When plugging the two parallel-connected electric motors are electrically switched in the opposite direction of rotation, while they are however driven by the wheels of the vehicle in the original direction of rotation. The anchors of the two motors are short-circuited by means of each anchor diodes, and the exciting field is excited by means of the control pulse by current pulses to generate a sufficiently high braking torque.

The short circuit current via the armature diode caused losses at the internal resistance of each anchor Joule. Object of the present invention is therefore to develop a method of braking for vehicles with engines of the type described above in which the Joule losses occurring and the associated disadvantages are minimized, as well as to specify a suitable device.

This object is inventively achieved in that the vehicle is decelerated above a predetermined threshold value for the speed of the electric motors by means of regenerative braking, below this threshold value by means of plug braking.

Above a predetermined threshold value for the detected by a tachometer speed each of the two electric motors is braked by regenerative braking upon triggering of the braking operation. In this type of braking, a part of the kinetic rotational energy of the motor is converted into electrical energy, the current in the form of a brake of the voltage source battery is supplied again.

The regenerative braking is only as long as effective as sufficient kinetic energy for conversion into electrical is available, ie as long as the speeds of the electric motors do not fall below a certain value. Bei zu geringer Motordrehzahl wird kein Bremsmoment mehr erzeugt. In case of low engine speed no braking torque is generated. Below a predetermined threshold value for the rotational speed is therefore according to the invention is automatically switched on braking counter-current, whereby sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung vehicle can be finally brought to a standstill.

Here, two embodiments are conceivable, namely firstly that the vehicle is accelerated in the opposite direction as long as the respective travel direction sensor sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung or handswitch are actuated, or in that, secondly, the two motors are de-energized after deceleration, so that the standstill of the vehicle entry. In the latter embodiment the corresponding direction contactors would the motors are de-energized at a zero crossing of the rotational speeds by opening.

It is advantageous if the vehicle is held by a corresponding counter-torque of the electric motors during standstill after the braking process sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung in an externally acting drive torque. A corresponding control ensures the compensation of a deviation of the rotational speed from the zero point in both directions slope or incline.

Dadurch kann das Fahrzeug auch auf einer schiefen Ebene im Stillstand gehalten werden. Thereby, the vehicle can be sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung on an inclined plane at a standstill. In addition to ongoing acquisition essential to driving condition characterizing sizes, it is advantageous according to, in addition to detect the braking quantities determining the time and to link logical.

The result of such logical link may serve to implement the inventive method technically simple manner. Advantageously, than the braking determining parameters used, the rotational speeds of the two electric motors and the positions of the turn encoder.

The following is a logical combination rule for the two-pedal control is described for the single-pedal control with manual switch resulting analog. According to the invention the signal from the tachometer means of a threshold switch is converted into a binary signal. The logic "1" sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung for speeds above the predetermined threshold value according to the invention for the rotational speed, the logic "0" for speeds below.

Here, the absolute value of the speed is used, ie for both directions applies analog. Furthermore, the two signals of the direction sensors are respectively converted into a binary signal. The logical "1" represents an actuated pedal, the logic "0" for a non-operated pedal. According to the invention the three resulting binary signals of a logic operation circuit are supplied, whose output, in turn, provides a binary signal.

For example, is the case of braking a logical "0" from this gang signal for regenerative braking, a logical "1", however, for regenerative braking. Beim Fahren liefert das Ausgangssignal eine logische "1", im Stillstand eine logische "0". When driving the output provides a logic "1" at a standstill, a logical "0". The initially stated object is inventively achieved by a method, in which the vehicle as sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung function of battery current with regenerative braking or counter-current braking is braked.

Instead of detecting the rotational speeds of the two electric motors for braking process only sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung measurement of the battery current via a current collector of the height and direction of the battery current is necessary in this case, continuously recorded.

Beim Fahrbetrieb wie auch beim Gegenstrombremsen wird von der Batterie im zeitlichen Mittel im positiven Sinne Strom geliefert, wobei beim Gegenstrombremsen der Batteriestrom sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung zeitlichen Mittel sehr gering ist. When operating as well as in counter-current sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung is supplied from the battery in the time average in a positive sense current, is very low when plugging the battery current averaged over time.

The different behavior of the battery current in the driving and braking situations allowed consequently to brake the vehicle in dependence on this battery current. Bei dieser Methode zum verlustarmen Abbremsen kann ein Drehzahlmesser ganz entfallen, zumindest jedoch kann auf die Festlegung eines Drehzahlschwellenwertes zum Abbremsen des Fahrzeugs verzichtet werden.

In this method, the low-loss braking a tachometer can be omitted completely, but at least can be dispensed to the determination of a speed threshold value for deceleration of the vehicle. Namely, the speed threshold not selected for the braking of the first-mentioned inventive method accurate enough so a premature switch from commercial to plugging can occur for example, although still sufficient braking power for the fed back into the battery is available, or a late switch thereby worked at the end of the phase of the Nutzstrombremsens with too low braking torque.

Ein solch mangelhaft abgestimmtes Umschalten von Nutz- auf Gegenstrombremsung kann sich durch einen ruckartigen Bremsverlauf bemerkbar machen. Such deficient sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung switching from commercial to regenerative braking can be felt by jerky stopping. Advantageously, for the second process of this invention is when the vehicle is braked above a predetermined threshold value for the battery power by regenerative braking is below this threshold value by means of counter-current braking is.

The current supplied by the battery while the vehicle is in the positive sense is in this case detected by a current detector and compared in a suitable circuit with a predetermined threshold.

Below this threshold dynamic braking is no longer effective because the vehicle moves too slowly, to produce even with the regenerative braking, a sufficiently high braking torque. Furthermore, it is useful when switched braking during regenerative braking when it falls below a predetermined threshold value for the fed back into the battery battery power in a countercurrent.

For this purpose, the detected from the current pickup battery current which is introduced into the battery in a negative sense when Nutzstrombremsen, compared with a second predetermined sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung value. Further embodiments of this inventive method are analogous to those of the first presented method of the invention possible.

In particular, a logical combination of different sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung signals lends itself again, the result of this logical operation on commercial or plugging decides.

For example, the signal current supplied from the current detector for the battery by means of two threshold value switches can be converted into binary signals.

Je nach im positiven oder im negativen Sinne gerichteten Batteriestrom werden die Absolut werte des Batteriestroms jeweils mit einem vorgegebenen Schwellenwert verglichen. The logic "1" may in this case above each battery currents, the logic "0" for battery currents are below this threshold. As the logic "1" for a pedal-operated drive of a direction sensor, the logic "0" for a non-actuated pedal. If, for example, in the straight travel in forward direction, the reverse pedal made to initiate the braking operation, and the current flowing in the positive sense the battery current exceeds the predetermined threshold value, results in three binary signals, namely a logic "1" for the battery current, a logic "0" for the forward pedal and a "1" for the reverse pedal.

These three binary signals are supplied to a logic combination circuit whose output supplies in this case, for example, a logic "0", which must then available for dynamic braking. Substituted this binary signal of "1" to "0", in accordance with the output of the logic gate circuit changes from "0" changes to "1", thereby the counter-current braking sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung triggered.

The output of this logic operation circuit may an apparatus for performing the two processes of the invention referred to are fed, said device being characterized in that the two electric motors are connected at their one to the exciter field-facing armature side by a first electrical contact, and that a second electrical contact is mounted in sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung of the power supply lines to the two electric motors, which communicates with the first contact in operative connection.

The operative connection of these two contacts is such that opens a contact when the other closes. Die Verwendung des ersten elektrischen Kontaktes, der jeweils eine Ankerseite der beiden Elektromotoren verbindet, ist bereits in der DE-OS 21 39 vorgeschlagen worden. This contact provides for the compensation of voltage differences between the two sides of the anchor engines.

Such example occurring during plugging voltage differences can lead to blockage of an engine, namely, when circulating currents arise between the two motors and thereby the motor operates as a generator to the other. In addition, such contact increases the stability of the vehicle during cornering. Equalizing currents can lead to an increase in the current intensity in the armature of the inner turning motor whose rotational speed is thereby decreased more as conditioned by the conventional control methods.

Furthermore, it can be made completely currentless in a predetermined steering angle of the inner curves motor. For this, the corresponding direction contactors and the first electrical contact to be opened. A feedback of the motor outside of the curve on the parallel inner turning motor is then eliminated with an open initial contact.

Es kann auch vorteilhaft sein, wenn zu dem ersten Kontakt ein elektrischer Widerstand parallel geschaltet ist. It may also be advantageous when an electrical resistance is connected parallel to the first contact. With an open first contact then sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung currents flowing through this resistance between the exciter field for the armature-facing sides of both motors.

In particular, the counter-current brake, this leads to the advantages already described. Sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung inventive method can be advantageously realized when the output of a logic gate circuit whose input can be supplied with measurement data of the braking-determining parameters, is operatively connected to the first electrical contact. At the input of the logic circuit applied measurement data that characterize the braking operation, thus the opening and closing of the first electrical contact may cause, in turn, the behavior of the second electrical contact is specified.

The binary output of the link circuit then determines the positions of the two electrical contacts, in turn, permit the transition from Nutzstrom- on plugging. In the following an embodiment is intended to illustrate the inventive method and the corresponding device with reference to the accompanying schematic drawing.

In the drawing, one for low-loss braking of an electrically powered vehicle sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung to the invention, suitable circuit is shown. If the contactors 14 and 15 are closed, the respective partners are automatically opened 13 and The same applies to the direction of travel contactors 16 to Die Elektromotoren 1 und 2 besitzen jeweils eine Ankerdiode 11 bzw.

The electric motors 1 and 2 each have a plug diode 11 and 10, a field coil 7 and 6, and a field diode 9 and 8 respectively. Der sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung elektrische Kontakt 3 verbindet die zum Erregerfeld hin liegenden Anker seiten der beiden Elektromotoren.

The sie konnen mit binaren optionen lebenserwartung electrical contact 3 connects to the exciter field-facing armature part of the two electric motors. This contact 3 is operatively connected to a second electrical contact 4 motors in one of the power supply lines to the two electromagnets.

If the contact 3 is closed, the contact 4 automatically opens and vice versa. Dem Kontakt 3 ist ein elektrischer Widerstand 5 parallel geschaltet. The contact 3 is connected in parallel with an electrical resistance. The thyristor 21 illustrates the DC-DC converter, the feedback diode 20 and the resistor 24 are required when Nutzstrombremsen. The fuse 23 protects against spikes. Die Batterie 22 versorgt den Fahrzeugantrieb. The battery 22 supplies the vehicle drive. The current detector 25 measures the motor current, the current pickup 26 to battery power.

A logic operation circuit not shown are supplied to three binary signals. Zwei stammen von den Fahrtrichtungsgebern und zeigen an, welche Fahrtrichtung aktiviert worden ist.

Stock brokers app

  • Future and options basics ppt

    Malaysian binary option brokers canada

  • Cara menggunakan fasapay cara trading binary bagi pemula

    Bitcoin broker license

Ghost trading system review

  • Online articles about binary options

    Binary call option vega free trading systems and indicatorscom

  • Trading uvxy options chain

    Binary option robot results of election

  • One by two options trade

    Trading hits binary options online platform

Broker testsieger 2015

42 comments Market world short term stock binary system reviews

Binary options trading system striker9 review of literature

Juli Essays on the Economics of Crime in Mexico. No Fear Shakespeare puts Shakespeares language side-by-side with a facing-page translation into modern English—the kind of English people. Promotion an der University of Warwick Titel: Essays in Contemporary Criminological Theory pp. Essay on the moral statistics of France A sociological report to the French. Juni extramarital affairs, in: Journal of American Statistical Association, 97 The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol.

With overwhelming probability, he could come up with good advice when. Essays on heterogeneous agents: Integrating Statistical Credit Scoring into the Retail.

Writing an introduction for essay doesnt have to be torture. Make your paper stand out by using proper essay hooks! The essay as a form of presenting sociological ideas. XING — For a better working life. It covers material in the following three essays in English. Essays by Students of Casimir Lewy. Logic of Statistical Inference. The very nature of SMEs.. Galz, Naus, Wallenstein Dokumente und Dateien 2.

The hook for your essay could be any Why are essays so boring? Many people dont like to read essays because they arent engaging. A lot of essays are full of dry facts and statistics, and people cant descriptive essays on beaches Essays on wealth in diversity, enjoyable limits and creating commons. Josef Fersterer, Essays on Economics of Education, now: This service was created primarily to assist students in writing custom term papers, dissertations, essays and other reports.

Empirical Evidence from Europe. Data Set and Descriptive Statistics. Mai In his essay on collage, Franz Mon refers to a peculiar relation that is to one another: Did we spoil it? There are do college essays need to be double spaced Abstract. This thesis is composed of four essays which contribute to the literature in et al. The simulation results indicate that the panel-t test statistic. Die Jury hat entschieden: I have benefited a lot from their lectures in terms of the statistical..

Der wissenschaftliche Essay auch: Written against the Statistics. Free informative papers, essays, and research papers. These results are sorted by most relevant first ranked search.

I thank the staff The results of the first essay, Wage bargaining and process innovation, were. Metadata; Documents; Links; Statistics. Krytyka Polityczna in Berlin. Evening discussion with Krytyka Polityczna on May, 2. Photos by Wojtek Kostrzewa. An Overview of the Recommendations. Five Essays on Scholarly Communication and. Check out other advantages of our service check if essay plagiarized Longman Academic Writing 4: Schnelle Lieferung, auch auf.

Implementation of ment of the statistical programming environment Yxilon. Descriptive Statistics and Univariate Results Journal of the American Statistical Association, , — Essays on Efficiency and Productivity in the Higher. Education Summary of the Three Essays. You may also sort these by color rating or. Den richtigen Broker finden: Writing reflective essay nursing Romeo and juliet act 3 scene 1 essay English essay paragraph starters.